What are some of the unique adaptations of the dog?
Dogs are far sighted. Their eyes are designed to detect movement and are less able to detect detail. A dog’s field of vision is approximately 250 degrees, while in comparison, a human’s field of vision is about 180 degrees. At 30 degrees, their binocular vision is very limited compared to ours (it is about half that of a human). Dogs have eyes that are rich in rods and they have a reflective layer in the back of their eye (tapetum lucidum.) Both of these adaptations allow adequate vision in dim light. Dogs do have a small number of cones in their eyes that allow them to detect some color in their environment.
Dogs have a very sensitive sense of smell. They have about 220 million smell sensitive cells compared to 5 million cells in a human. As an example, a wolf can smell a deer up to one and one half miles away.
The hearing of a dog is very acute. People hear in the 16-20,000 Hertz range while dogs can hear all the way into the 70-100,000 Hertz range. As an example, a wolf can hear a howl up to four miles away.
What kind of social structure do dogs display?
Dogs still display all of the strong social instincts of the wolf. They are pack animals that have a need to establish a pecking order within the group. Modern dogs spend most of their time with humans and will come to view their human family as their pack. The need to establish order will exist within this modern human/dog "pack". Normally there will be an alpha (dominant) female and male. All other pack members will be subordinate to this pair whether they are human or canine.
Many experts describe dog behavior as strictly hierarchical. This point of view is being challenged. It appears that certain members of a pack may switch roles depending on need, for example, a certain pack member may be an outstanding hunter and take the lead in a hunt or perhaps each pack member may have a certain role in the hunt of a large mammal with one member going for the neck, another for the belly.
How do dogs communicate?
The complex social system of the dog is maintained through visual, physical, auditory and olfactory cues and signals. What is the meaning of the following body language? See if you can interpret some of the situations that follow:
· Tail low, wagging, face licking, nuzzling, rolling over, displaying belly/groin, urinating, averting gaze, crouching
These are all body signs of a submissive animal. This dog is acknowledging its lower status in the hierarchy by exhibiting puppy-like body language. If the dominant animal (or person) does not accept these gestures and continues to crowd or press the subordinate dog, the subordinate dog may go as far as to rollover and urinate on itself. This is the ultimate sign of submission.
· Tail erect, stiff legged walk, head held high, ears up, direct eye contact
These are all body signs of a dominant animal. This does not necessarily mean that the dog will bite. It does mean that the animal has a high opinion of its self and may not acknowledge another animals dominance (including humans).
· Front legs extended, chest lowered to ground, ears back, yapping, rump in the air, tail up and wagging
These are all body signs of a dog that wants to play. This dog is "inviting" another dog or person to join him in a play session. He is making himself less threatening by making himself smaller and is using puppy sounds (yap) to let all concerned know that romping is about to take place, not fighting.
· Ears back, lips drawn back, head and neck extended, tail up, standing tall, hackles up, eye contact
These are all strong body signs of a dog that is about to bite. This dog is positioning itself for an attack on the vulnerable jugular area of the enemy and making itself large by body posture. It is indicating with the facial expression and raising of the hackles that a bite is eminent.
Realize that certain breeds, because of breed characteristics, may be more difficult to "read" than other dogs. Dogs with floppy ears, for example, will not provide ear position cues. Dogs with heavy facial fur make it difficult for the observer to interpret facial signals as is often the case with Old English Sheepdogs, for example. Some dogs have been selected for their lack of vocalization, as in the Doberman Pinscher’s so called silent attack. In reality all of these dogs are providing many behavioral clues, the average unobservant human is just not very good at interpreting them.
Describe normal physical and psychological development of a puppy:
Normal development in a puppy is characterized by five main periods:
Days 0-14 - Neonate period, dependent on mother
Days 14-21 - Transitional period, rapid physical and mental development
Days 21-84 - Socialization period, inter-dog, and human social relations developed
Days 70+ - Juvenile period, rapid learning
Sexual maturity - Adult period, continue to learn
Canine development periods
There is considerable research and written material about what is normal for puppies as they mature. Not all the behaviorists agree on the exact times a puppy should be weaned and go to a new home or when the eyes and ears will open etc..Three references, well known veterinarians and behaviorists, were summarized for the following section.
I) Neonatal Period - birth to 2 weeks of age
Puppies are born totally dependant on their mother and need close and constant attention. At this time they show no adult behavior patterns and their eyes and ears are closed. Their mother stimulates urination and defecation by licking the anogenital region. Puppies do have some reflexes, including pain, suckling, righting (when turned on their side rolling back to lie on their stomach), and anogenital (urinating and defecating when stimulated).
The question often arises about the amount of pain felt by puppies when procedures such as tail docking and dewclaw clipping are performed at an early age without anesthesia. Veterinarians or occasionally breeders have performed these minor surgeries before puppies reach one week of age. The traditional view has been that the puppy’s nervous system is underdeveloped and that they do not feel the same sensation as an adult dog. Recently there has been much interest and research in veterinary medicine regarding pain and pain management in animals. Perhaps, in light of new findings changes will made in the practice.
Some research has indicated that gentle handling producing a mild stimulus to the neonatal puppy may be beneficial by helping puppies adapt to new situations later in life.
Everyone agrees that during this period a clean and quiet environment, warmth, excellent nutrition, and careful observation by both the bitch and owner are essential.
II) Transitional period - 2 to 3 weeks of age
During this period many adult reflexes and behaviors start to take shape. Eyes open as early as 5 five days and as late as two weeks, by 21-to 28 days the vision should be normal. The ears open at about two weeks; often an oily discharge will be noted. Puppies begin to crawl, urinate and defecate on their own and can "dog sit". Some may begin to develop preferences for where they eliminate as early 3 weeks. Also at about 3 weeks they begin to socialize with dogs (litter mates and mother) and start to learn dog etiquette.
III) Socialization period - 3 to 12 weeks of age
During this stage puppies learn to walk and climb normally, eat solid and liquid food and reflexes become more fully developed.
This is the time when they are especially receptive to new stimuli, animals,
humans, and novel experiences. The early weeks of this period are focused on
interactions with other dogs, but starting as early as 5 weeks puppies can begin
to socialize with humans.
Within this 9 week socialization time, there are periods where puppies are easily frightened, fear periods. If puppies are mishandled and frightened during these periods it will probably have permanent long-term effects.
It is essential that puppies have interactions with other dogs at least during the stages of the socialization period. There have been many reports of orphan puppies raised by hand with no littermates being attacked, and sometimes killed, by another dog. These pups never learned canine body language and gave the dominant dog the "wrong" signal, perhaps a play bow, and were attacked.
At 7-8 weeks is the best time to begin human socialization, puppies will form bonds with their owners and are eager to interact with humans. Although these interactions are not true training sessions, many lifelong lessons will be learned. If puppies have little or no human contact during this stage they will probably become shy suspicious of humans as adults.
IV) Juvenile - 12-24 weeks
Many adult behavior patterns are established at this time. The cute puppy antics such as nipping, jumping, chewing and unruliness can become major problems when the 10 pound puppy grows to 50 pounds. Many dogs also reach sexual maturity at about 24 weeks or 6 months. This is a time when many dogs are given up to shelters because the owners can no longer deal with the behavior.
The veterinary teams’ opportunity and responsibility
Many veterinary practices are realizing the potential to help pets and their owners during this critical time of development. Since early correct handling and training can prevent most problems. The veterinarian and their staff usually see the developing pup several times during this period and can provide behavioral services to owners in many ways. This can be a “life saving” endeavor (considering the numbers of pets destroyed every year in animal shelters due to behavior problems) and it can be profitable for the clinic if managed correctly.
Veterinary technicians in some
practices have taken the initiative to help in the following ways:
By offering puppy socialization classes
By offering one-on-one consultation concerning basic behavior and puppy training
By recommending a puppy kindergarten class or professional trainer
Obviously the first two options require that the technician gain knowledge and competency in the area first, and if referrals are recommended they have to be investigated.
There are organizations providing step-by-step information on how to set up behavioral services in a veterinary hospital.
Discuss the reproductive cycle of the dog:
The estrous cycle of the bitch lasts approximately six months although there may be variations within certain breeds or female family lines. Basenjis usually cycle only once per year while certain family lines of German Shepherds may cycle as often as three times a year. Most female dogs reach sexual maturity between six months to one and a half years of age. Larger breeds tend to reach puberty later than smaller breeds. In general, a female dog should not be bred during her first estrus because she will most likely not be fully mature physically. Most male dogs become sexually active between four to six months of age.
The bitch’s cycle is non-seasonal; meaning it is usually not influenced by the time of the year. It is divided into the following stages
Proestrus: usually lasts 5-9 days. The bitch will have a swollen vulva and pink/bloody discharge. Males will be attracted to her but she will not accept them.
Estrus: usually lasts about 9 days. The bitch will still have a swollen vulva, but the discharge changes from bloody to clear. The bitch will accept the male. She will usually ovulate within 48 hours of the lutenizing hormone (LH) surge.
Metestrus/Diestrus: lasts about 90 days; the corpus luteum develops in metestrus and exerts its maximal effect in diestrus (diestrus is when a pyometra can occur.)
Anestrus: period of sexual calm or inactivity between estrus.
What are the characteristics of semen in the dog?
Semen volume is variable with total volume ranging from 2-60 mL. 20 mL is considered average. The semen should have 200-3000 sperm x 1,000,000/ejaculate with 60-90% of the sperm showing motility. These characteristics are important to note because artificial insemination is becoming more common and because knowledge of normal values is crucial in the determination of fertility problems.
Describe mating behavior in the dog:
Mating behavior in the dog begins with the dog investigating the bitch’s anogenital area. If the bitch is receptive, mounting will occur with the dog exhibiting pelvic thrusts. Once intromission occurs, the dog will begin leg stepping and at this point will ejaculate. The dog will dismount, but the two animals will be tied together in a genital lock. The bitch’s muscular vulvar wall swells and contracts on the dog’s penis, locking the two animals together. The "tie" may last minutes to well over an hour.
Describe gestation and parturition in the bitch:
The bitch’s gestation is normally 63 days in length. Dogs have litters and have zonary placentation.
Prior to whelping several changes will occur. 12-24 hours before giving birth, the bitch will begin to produce colostrum. This colustrum will be produced for up to three days. Immediately before giving birth, the bitch’s body temperature will drop to less than 98.6 degrees F (37 degrees C). The bitch will become restless and anxious. She may pace, try to hide, and exhibit nest building behavior. She may refuse to eat and may even vomit. The puppies are expelled roughly every 30 minutes. There may be delays of up to 1 hour between puppies. Puppies come out of the mother in many different directions so head first or feet first does not matter. There should be a placentas for every puppy. The mother may eat the afterbirth. This is normal behavior. The mother will lick the puppies to stimulate them and to remove any remaining fluid or tissue. The puppies will immediately begin to seek a nipple.
Describe normal behavior in a dog:
Normal behavior in a dog includes barking, howling, digging, biting chewing,
mounting, marking territory with urine and feces, roaming, guarding, growling,
attempting to establish dominance, protecting food, sleeping areas and
offspring, etc… Most problems that arise from dog ownership and interaction
are a result of an expression of normal behavior.
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